Jul 5, 2018

Negative cache TTL on Windows-based DNS

Think about this scenario:

- client uses Windows DNS for name resolution
- client has a record on an external DNS server, let's say a.external.com
- Windows DNS forwards queries of *.external.com to its respective authoritative DNS
- a.external.com has a TTL of 1 min
- a.external.com is removed then re-created with a new IP in 2 min time range (this is common for a cluster or load balancer setup)
- After the record is re-created, client pings it right away and expect to see new IP returned
- Actual result is "host name not found in DNS"

This is because how Windows DNS handles negative cache. Within that 2 min outage window, if anyone queried the name, Windows DNS gets a negative result from upstream (external) DNS. This negative result is cached ( naturally called negative caching), with a TTL as described below:

  • -          Windows client resolver has a universal negative cache time (default 5 min) that can be changed in registry
    HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services \DNSCache\Parameters\NegativeCacheTime
  • -          Windows DNS server sets the TTL of negative result cache from SOA of hosting zone. In this particular case, TTL from external.com zone SOA 

More read:

Oct 30, 2017

Top Ten Issues with Active Directory Trusts and Corporate Mergers

 Top Ten Issues with Active Directory Trusts and Corporate Mergers

Really excellent article on multiple topics.

copy of whole article:

Hey Everyone. Randy, Premier Field Engineer, here to discuss some lessons learned from working with a recent merger between two corporations. I don’t have enough time or space to go into the details of this major endeavor, so I am going to talk about this experience with a “Top Ten Countdown” style BLOG POST. I’m sure there are many other headaches seen in the field and I would love to hear about them in the comments section. Maybe I can start to consolidate all this into a Wiki about Partnerships and Mergers between two dueling Active Directory environments. Let’s get started:
1. This one being the most important! Never establish multiple trust paths: I have had the same conversation with countless engineers when doing phone support, about setting up both a Forest Trust between the two Forest Roots, and also an External Trust between two child domains in each of the forests. This should never be done under any circumstances. The argument is often “But this is a shortcut trust.” A Shortcut Trust is between two different domains in the same forest. I have also seen arguments where certain applications (here is an example) that are performing logon routines are not able to query a forest, and therefore need a direct trust. There is likely a newer version of the application without this requirement. If there is not an update or competitive product without this requirement, then it is time to do some soul searching on what is more important. The crux of the issue is different technologies providing the trust path between the same domains, each having different characteristics and limitations. One workflow may use the enumeration of trusted domains and hit one of these limitations based on the technology invoked.
2. Beware of CNAME (alias) records in DNS: This is true regardless of traversing a trust, or in the local domain. The behavior of how SPNs are formatted in the client’s request has dramatically changed over various versions of Windows. This article talks about this behavior, although it is not that straight forward about why it is a problem. When accessing a resource using Kerberos Authentication, the client has to construct a Service Principal Name based on the Host Name offering that service. Take a look at the example Below:
Here we have a File Server (FileServ1.adatum.com) hosting a Share (\\SalesReports\Monthly.) In DNS, we configure a Cname record to direct any DNS query for SalesReports.adatum.com, to the physical host of website Fileserv1.adatum.com.
In Windows XP and SMBv1: We would ask the KDC/Domain Controller for CIFS/SalesReports, because that was the hostname supplied in the UNC Path.
In Vista and SMBv2: We would ask the KDC/Domain Controller for CIFS/FileSrv1.adatum.com, because that was the hostname resolved in the DNS CNAME query.
In Windows 8: We once again returned to the original behavior of asking for CIFS/SalesReports, and adding the “NETDOM COMPUTERNAME /ADD” to supply an alternate name that would register the SPN for you.
The recommendation from Microsoft is to avoid CNAME records if at all possible. This will avoid a variety of headaches because you could see unexpected outcomes as you use other network transports like HTTP.
3. Use Fully Qualified Domain Names: When joining a domain, writing logon scripts, or configuring an application setting that requires a computer or domain name, I have just made this a habit ever since about 2003. There are plenty of ways that Windows can overcome flat names, but why not keep it simple wherever you can. By supplying the FQDN, we tell DNS exactly what we want without confusion. Here is a short list of problems you will avoid:
1. Same Host Names exist in multiple domains
2. Time delays having to parse through the domain suffix search order to look for a match
3. Kerberos KDC knowing which realm to forward the ticket request
4. Disjoined Name Spaces or Unorthodox Naming Conventions
The next two items on the list are related to FQDN.
4. Kerberos Forest Search Order: In some situations, flat names may be used and will format the SPN request made by the client as “HTTP/ServerName” (for example) and not include the domain suffix. The domain suffix is important because the user will always go to its local domain’s KDC which uses the domain suffix to identify which Kerberos Realm it should direct the user. There is a GPO setting that can be configured either for the client or the KDC which lists out other realms where it can check for a matching SPN. A configuration that I found useful is to list the Workstation Forest in the KFSO GPO applied to the workstation. This was helpful in a situation where users have been migrated to the new AD Forest, but their workstations have yet to be migrated. Let’s watch this play out in a cartoon entitled “The Adventures of Joey Adatum!”
The beauty of this solution is that there would be no performance impact (as described in the TechNet documentation) because the workstation is just asking its local Forest and would only be relevant if the logged on user was from a different Forest.
5. DFS Namespaces: To continue on the topic of domain suffixes, update DFSN to use DNS FQDN’s. This will ensure that any cross forest usage of DFS Namespaces will resolve correctly. Another important aspect is the Special Names Table generated for the forest. The Special Names Table is a list stored on each Windows client that it gets from the DC. It is a listing of domain names that the DFS client needs to recognize when resolving a UNC path as either a Domain-Based DFSN or a regular Server Name. A Two-Way Forest trust will not give you any problems with populating this table for the partner forest. If you start playing with One-Way, or External Trusts, you might not get the results you are looking for, especially when child domains are involved. You can see the Special Names Table by using “dfsutil /spcinfo” on a client that has the DFS RSAT tools installed. See the example below when running dfsutil /spcinfo on a workstation in Widgets.Adatum.com:
One-Way Trust:
C:\temp>dfsutil /spcinfo
Two-Way Trust:
C:\temp>dfsutil /spcinfo
The good news is Windows 8 & 10 clients seem to behave, and I only found this to be an issue with Windows 7 / 2008 systems. This can be a major problem with new SMB Hardening recommendations for \\*\Sysvol and \\*\Netlogon. If you have a One-Way trust and Windows 7 clients with SMB hardening, then they won’t be getting group policy across the forest because Kerberos will fail.
6. Will users log on interactively or via RDP to systems across the Forest Trust? I am including this as a separate line item because it will likely be the biggest headache that you encounter. The two items above on our list are examples of problems you might face. It would be helpful to really think through these situations and see where Network Access would be sufficient.
7. Don’t forget about udp port 389: Firewall configuration is always important when troubleshooting cross forest failures. Make sure all the required ports are open for Active Directory, udp 389 is often forgotten, but very important for DC Discovery operations.
8. Site Affiliation: For optimal performance, we want to make sure that we are choosing resources located near our physical location. I won’t go into detail, because a great BLOG POST was written eight years ago that still reigns true today.
9. Make security policies consistent: Why are domain controllers all located in a single OU? Answer: To make sure they all get the same GPO Security Settings. When we establish a trust between two Active Directories, we are extending our trust boundary beyond the local forest to our partner. You want to pay careful attention to conflicting settings that would break communications. Here is a classic KB article which describes numerous potential conflicts. Make sure you work together on a common security baseline for both AD Forests. If this is going to be a long term relationship, I recommend a solution in place to identify a naming convention for GPOs with sensitive settings and routinely synchronize or compare these GPOs. Some tools that may help in this effort are the Security Compliance Manager (free!), or Advanced Group Policy Manager (requires MDOP license)
10. Be aware of your partner’s vulnerabilities: When you open your doors to a partner environment, you could be exposing yourself to all the threats they encounter. Here are some questions to ask:
1. How do they enforce system health compliance?
2. How do they deliver patching and security updates?
3. Are they running legacy operating systems?
4. What are their Password Policies?
5. How many Domain Admins do they have, and are any of them service accounts?
6. Have they reported security breaches in the past?
Whenever your users traverse the trust, they could be exposed to credential theft. In turn, their users are now your users. Whatever vulnerabilities and compromises they face, are now your problems. You can set up various roadblocks to prevent these issues.
1. Don’t let privileged accounts logon interactively and restrict what they can access over the network. Stay away from Legacy Operating Systems.
2. Consider Security Considerations for Trusts, implement measures like SID Filtering or Selective Trusts.
3. Secure Privileged Access with a Tier Administration Model and other mitigations.
These are just a few examples of considerations. Just keep in mind that this is a major endeavor and should be well planned. Also, think outside of the box. This may be time to consider hosting services in Azure and merging the two forests in Azure AD, while keeping your on premise nice and isolated.
Good Luck,
Randy “Trust me” Turner

Aug 2, 2017

Mystical GPO change

We are monitoring changes on critical AD objects by event ID 4662. It usually does a good job reporting who initiated the change. Today we have an alert as below:

An operation was performed on an object.
Subject : Security ID: SYSTEM Account Name: DC1$ Account Domain: john.com Logon ID: 0x76AB862E
Object: Object Server: DS Object Type: groupPolicyContainer Object Name: CN={xxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxx},CN=Policies,CN=System,DC=john,DC=com Handle ID: 0x0
Operation: Operation Type: Object Access Accesses: Write Property
This is a normal event 4662 except that the subject is "System" of DC1. Why would the system account change a GPO? 

Turns out that this is our Default Domain Controllers Policy. There wasn't a direct edit to the GPO. Rather, logon credential for a service on this DC was changed, which in turn added the new service account to "logon as service".

Jun 15, 2016

How to track any attribute change

  1. Assumption #1: DS Access enabled in Group Policy
  2. Assumption #2: audit is enabled on the obejct you want to track ( SACL entries)
  3. run "repadm /showobjmeta DCName DN_of_object"
  4. Check the change time and origin DC of the attribute
  5. Check event id 4662 for that time point on the origin DC
  6. You may see several 4662 events
  7. You should see Subject, Object, and Operation info in the event, and look for operation type "Write Property"
  8. In "properties" section, it list only GUID of the property, so you will have to match it up to AD schema here
  9. Obviously step 8 is near to impossible as there are a few hundreds attributes and you don't want to check them one by one
  10. So you can also just search the GUID from schema context. The query string will look like something like this "schemaIDGUID=#($U@()&%)@" BUT YOU CANNOT USE THE GUID FROM THE EVENT VIREW! You have to convert it first
  11. How to convert a GUID reported in event viewer to a LDAP query filter: this page. Life is hard, isn't it?!

Oct 21, 2015

Using LDP.exe to restore deleted AD objects

The whole process is described here, however, what the article failed to mention:

  • you must use LDAPS to connect to AD
  • When type in new DN, make sure you type in CN portion as well. Most people tend to copy only OU path
  • You need to connect to AD using a user account in local domain, otherwise you won't be see any object under "Deleted Objects" OU

To restore a deleted Active Directory object using Ldp.exe

  1. Open Ldp.exe from an elevated command prompt. Open a command prompt (Cmd.exe) as an administrator. To open a command prompt as an administrator, click Start. In Start Search, type Command Prompt. At the top of the Start menu, right-click Command Prompt, and then click Run as administrator. If the User Account Control dialog box appears, enter the appropriate credentials (if requested), confirm that the action it displays is what you want, and then click Continue.
  2. To connect and bind to the server that hosts the forest root domain of your AD DS environment, under Connections, click Connect, and then click Bind.
  3. On the Options menu, click Controls.
  4. In the Controls dialog box, expand the Load Predefined drop-down list, click Return Deleted Objects, and then click OK.
  5. In the console tree, navigate to the CN=Deleted Objects container.
  6. Locate and right-click the deleted Active Directory object that you want to restore, and then click Modify.
  7. In the Modify dialog box:
    1. In Edit Entry Attribute, type isDeleted.
    2. Leave the Values box empty.
    3. Under Operation, click Delete, and then click Enter.
    4. In Edit Entry Attribute, type distinguishedName.
    5. In Values, type the original distinguished name (also known as DN) of this Active Directory object.
    6. Under Operation, click Replace.
    7. Make sure that the Extended check box is selected, click Enter, and then click Run

Aug 25, 2015

How to create trust between MIT kerberos realm and AD

Copy from this page
Please reference this page from Microsoft

Configuring a Local MIT Kerberos Realm to Trust Active Directory

On the Active Directory Server

  1. Type the following command to specify the local MIT KDC host name (for example, kdc-server-hostname.cluster.corp.company.com) and local realm (for example, YOUR-LOCAL-REALM.COMPANY.COM):
    ksetup /addkdc YOUR-LOCAL-REALM.COMPANY.COM kdc-server-hostname.cluster.corp.company.com
    Run this command on every domain controller that will be referenced by the cluster'skrb5.conf file. If load balancing is being used and a single KDC hostname has to be provided to all domain controllers, refer the Microsoft documentation instead of explicitly using theksetup command on individual domain controllers.
  2. Type the following command to add the local realm trust to Active Directory:
    netdom trust YOUR-LOCAL-REALM.COMPANY.COM /Domain:AD-REALM.COMPANY.COM /add /realm /passwordt:
  3. Type the following command to set the encryption type:
    On Windows 2003 RC2:
    Windows 2003 server installations do not support AES encryption for Kerberos. Therefore RC4 should be used. Please see the Microsoft reference documentation for more information.
    ktpass /MITRealmName YOUR-LOCAL-REALM.COMPANY.COM /TrustEncryp RC4
    On Windows 2008:
      Note: When using AES 256 encryption with Windows 2008 you must update the proper Java Cryptography Extension (JCE) policy files for the version of JDK you are using.
    ksetup /SetEncTypeAttr YOUR-LOCAL-REALM.COMPANY.COM 
    Where the  parameter can be replaced with parameter strings for AES, DES, or RC4 encryption modes. For example, for AES encryption, replace  with AES256-CTS-HMAC-SHA1-96 or AES128-CTS-HMAC-SHA1-96 and for RC4 encryption, replace with RC4-HMAC-MD5. See the Microsoft reference documentation for more information.
    Make sure the encryption type you specify is supported on both, your version of Windows Active Directory and your version of MIT Kerberos.

On the MIT KDC server

Type the following command in the kadmin.local or kadmin shell to add the cross-realm krbtgt principal. Use the same password you used in the netdom command on the Active Directory Server.
where the  parameter specifies the types of encryption this cross-realm krbtgt principal will support: either AES, DES, or RC4 encryption. You can specify multiple encryption types using the parameter in the command above, what's important is that at least one of the encryption types corresponds to the encryption type found in the tickets granted by the KDC in the remote realm.
Examples by Active Directory server type
  • For Windows 2003:
    kadmin: addprinc -e "rc4-hmac:normal" krbtgt/YOUR-LOCAL-REALM.COMPANY.COM@AD-REALM.COMPANY.COM
  • For Windows 2008:
    kadmin: addprinc -e "aes256-cts:normal aes128-cts:normal rc4-hmac:normal" krbtgt/YOUR-LOCAL-REALM.COMPANY.COM@AD-REALM.COMPANY.COM
The cross-realm krbtgt principal that you add in this step must have at least one entry that uses the same encryption type as the tickets that are issued by the remote KDC. If no entries have the same encryption type, then the problem you will see is that authenticating as a principal in the local realm will allow you to successfully run Hadoop commands, but authenticating as a principal in the remote realm will not allow you to run Hadoop commands.

On all of the cluster machines

  1. Verify that both Kerberos realms are configured on all of the cluster boxes. Note that the default realm and the domain realm should remain set as the MIT Kerberos realm which is local to the cluster.
        kdc = ad.corp.foo.com:88
        admin_server = ad.corp.foo.com:749
        default_domain = foo.com
        kdc = cluster01.corp.foo.com:88
        admin_server = cluster01.corp.foo.com:749
        default_domain = foo.com
  2. To properly translate principal names from the Active Directory realm into local names within Hadoop, you must configure the hadoop.security.auth_to_local setting in the core-site.xml file on all of the cluster machines. The following example translates all principal names with the realm AD-REALM.CORP.FOO.COM into the first component of the principal name only. It also preserves the standard translation for the default realm (the cluster realm).
For more information about name mapping rules, see:  Configuring the Mapping from Kerberos Principals to Short Names

Apr 22, 2015

How to reduce RDS CALs using WMI privider

Credit: TP (MVP)
Taken from: Technet Forum

You may uninstall license keypacks, reduce the number of install licenses, etc, using the Remote Desktop License Server WMI Provider.  For example, if you just need to reduce the installed count of one of the packs from 30 to 25 you could use the RemoveLicensesWithIdCount method.  Below is the documentation for the Win32_TSLicenseKeyPack Class:
Here are the basic steps for this example.
1. Get a list of installed keypacks.  Open a administrator command prompt and then enter the following commands:
wmic /namespace:\\root\CIMV2 PATH Win32_TSLicenseKeyPack>keypacks.txt
notepad keypacks.txt
2. Let's say you look at the keypacks.txt file and see that the keypack you want to modify is KeyPackId 3, and that you want to uninstall 5 licenses.  In that case you would enter a command similar to this:
wmic /namespace:\\root\CIMV2 PATH Win32_TSLicenseKeyPack CALL RemoveLicensesWithIdCount 3,5
Another example, say you want to uninstall the keypack (id 3 in our example).  Instead of the command in step 2 above, you would enter a command similar to this:
wmic /namespace:\\root\CIMV2 PATH Win32_TSLicenseKeyPack CALL UninstallLicenseKeyPackWithId 3
An alternative to the above is to Deactivate the licensing server, uninstall the RD/TS Licensing Role Service/reinstall the Role Service, Activate, and install your license pack(s) again.  This wipes out the license server database and recreates it.  You may need to contact the Clearinghouse if you get an error when re-installing your license pack(s).

Sep 11, 2014

Kerberos event 4/Target account name is incorrect/ troubleshooting

This error is reported whenever the service provider (e.g. file server) cannot decrypt a service ticket that was sent to it. This is caused by the fact that the ticket was encrypted by one machine then sent to a different machine. In this case, the second machine doesn't have the private key to decrypt the ticket.

Troubleshooting steps

- make sure there is not duplicate SPN for the service you are trying to get. For example, if you want to access \\serverName1\sharePath and get above error; or on a file server you see kerberos event 4, you want to check if there is duplicate SPN host\serverName*. In the past, it takes a little effort to find duplicate SPNs, but started Windows7/2008, you can run setspn -X to find all duplicated SPNs in your domain

- make sure you don't have duplicate DNS entries for same server to different IPs (unless the server does have multiple IP, and all DNS entries are correct).

- if access using FQDN works but not short name (e.g. \\server.FQDN.com\sharePath works but not \\server\sharePath), and you have WINS in your environment, make sure the target server register correct 20h record (File Server) in WINS

- If your target computer has multiple names (mostly added by command netdom computername), then you should make sure you add SPNs for all the alias you have. For example, if you have a server has both names as server1 and server2, you should below spn registered in AD:

  • host/server1.fqdn.com
  • host/server1
  • host/server2.fqdn.com
  • host/server2
- make sure you don't have hosts file entries that resolve to wrong IP

- Log into the system that actually owns wrong IP, make sure it's not registering wrong name. For DNS, check NIC TCP/IP stack; for WINS, check "netdom computername localhost /enum", as well as check HKLM\CCS\Services\lanmanserver\parameters\OptionalNames

Mar 20, 2014

Script to reverse OU path so it can be sorted from top down - Excel macro & vb procedure

' This excel macro reverse OU path so it can be sorted from domain top to OU trees

' For example: CN=John Lan,OU=IT,OU=accounts,DC=johnlan,DC=com
' Will be reversed to: DC=com,DC=johnlan,OU=accounts,OU=IT,CN=John Lan

' if you want only a function that can reverse OU path (distinguished name), use function ReverseOU
' if you want to use it in excel, copy both ReverseOU and ReverseText as your macro

' How to use it in Excel
' 1. Hold down the ALT + F11 keys, and it opens the Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications window.
' 2. Click Insert > Module, and paste the following macro in the Modulewindow.
' 3. Then press F5, a dialog is displayed on the screen, and you need select a range to work with.
' 4. And then press OK, and all the text strings have been reversed.
' (c) JohnLan@gmail.com

' ReverseOU can be called from any vb script
Function ReverseOU(s)
    Dim temp
    Dim arrValue
        arrValue = Split(s, ",")
        xLen = UBound(arrValue) + 1
        'wscript.echo xLen
        For i = 0 To ((xLen - 1) / 2)
            'wscript.echo i
            'wscript.echo xLen-i-1
            temp = arrValue(i)
            arrValue(i) = arrValue(xLen - i - 1)
            arrValue(xLen - i - 1) = temp
            'wscript.echo "----------"
        ReverseOU = Join(arrValue, ",")
End Function

'Below is for excel
Sub ReverseText()
    Dim Rng As Range
    Dim WorkRng As Range
    On Error Resume Next
    xTitleId = "KutoolsforExcel"
    Set WorkRng = Application.Selection
    Set WorkRng = Application.InputBox("Range", xTitleId, WorkRng.Address, Type:=8)
    For Each Rng In WorkRng
        xOut = ReverseOU(Rng.Value)
        Rng.Value = xOut
End Sub

Dec 12, 2013

Attributes used in ANR (Ambiguous Name Resolution)

  • GivenName
  • Surname
  • displayName
  • LegacyExchangeDN
  • msExchMailNickname
  • RDN
  • physicalDeliveryOfficeName
  • proxyAddress
  • sAMAccountName
How to run an ANR search:

(anr=John Doe)
(anr=J D)
(anr=J Doe) etc....

Nov 1, 2013

Logon Session (Console & RDP) Tracking Notes

A few notes about how Windows handles session creation/switch when I was writing an app to track user logon time. Maybe useful for somebody.

1. Observation
2. How to handle properly

=  Observations
disconnect from a remote session: remotedisconnect

logoff from console: logoff(user), consoledisconnect(user), consoleconnect(system)

(a system logon screen session can be identified by its "logonUI.exe" process, a subsequent logon will take over this session - meaning same session nuber. In this case, it will be only one event: sessionLogon)

lock a session: sessionLock

switch to an existing session: consoledisconnect(1st user) -> consoleconnect(system) -> consoledisconnect(system) -> consoleconnect(2nd user) -> unlock(2nd user)

unlock directly from orignal screen: consoleUnlock
if "switch user" clicked, then unlock: consoledisconnect(user)->consoleconnect(sytem takes over) -> consoledisconnect(disconnect system)-> consoleconnect(original user) -> sessionunlock(original user).

switch then a new logon: lock old user(sessionlock) -> disconnect old user(DisconnectConsole) -> System takes over(ConsoleConnect) -> new user takes over (sessionLogon)

remote disconnect: RemoteDisconnect

remote New connect:
-> remoteConnect(?)
-> sessionLogon
remote REconnect (existing logon sesseion somewhere):
-> remoteconnect(system)
-> if(existing was on console and open)
-> existingSessionDisconnect(user)
-> then system has to spawn a new session to take over (sessionConnect)
-> remoteDisconnect(system)
-> remoteconnect(user)

=  How to handle properly
There are many session switch that are very confusing at the first sight. For example, for a simple user switch, their may be up to 5 session switch events. The key thing to remember is whethre user has an existing session already.

- once a user obtained session #, he/she keeps that same session # unles she/he logs off. None other session switch events will change this owning relationship;
- Logically, user gets a new session # only when she/he logon
- If a user connects back on a same session or unlock a same session that he obtained prior, then only one switch envent, sessionUnlock or session logon will be fired;
- if a user takes a brand new session, or take session from others, then ConsoleDisconnect/connect will happen multiple times. Basically, TS has to break existing session from another user, connect under System, disconnect System session, then finally users takes the session

Oct 10, 2013

AD CA basic - study notes

  1. There are 3 snapins for certificate-related management
    1. on client, there is Certificates snappin, this manages the actual certificates
    2. on server, you have CA snapin and Certificate Templates snapin
  2. Just because you have a certificate template, doesn't mean CA is going to use it
  3. In order to issue a certain type of certificate, you have to let CA know that you want to issue that type of cert:
    1. In CA snapin, right click server name, New Certificate Template To Issue
    2. To check the current template that your CA can issue, click on "certificate templates"
  4. To manage your templates (in use/not in use), in CA snapin, expand CA server name, right click "Certificate Templates", select manage
  5. After #3, you are in "Certificate Templates" snapin
    1. Templates listed in here can be in use or not in use, depending on if you have perform #3 above
    2. You can directly publish a built-in template, but more typically, you should clone a template, make change on clone, then publish it (not a clone any more since we have made changes)
  6. For client to request:
    1. on a client machine, open Certificate snapin
      Optionally you can use IIS Admin Console or certreq command line
    2. Generate a request, send it to CA admin
    3. CA admin approves it
    4. Client enrolls the cert
  7. You can automate #6 by enabling auto enrollment in group policy
  8. Enterprise CA vs. Standalone CA
    1. standalone CA doesn't have certificate templates
    2. standalone doesn't support auto-enrollment

Apr 26, 2013

KMS, host keys, client keys, etc.

  1. One KMS can host multiple host keys - for example, it can host both Windows 2012 & Office host keys at the same time
  2. Host keys are confidential info for companies who bought the license; while client keys are publicly available from Microsoft's website. Client key for a product is same for all companies who chose to use KMS activation.
  3. Higher host keys is inclusive in that it covers older, lower products in the same product family. For example, once you install Windows Server 2012 Enterprise Edition, you won't need separate keys to cover standard edition or Windows 2008 servers. The same key covers all.

Nov 20, 2012

Replication error'ed out with "no more endpoints"

1.       When right click “replicate now”, and the error message is “error 1753: There are no more endpoints available from the endpoint mapper”, it’s complaining the source DC not able to find a RPC endpoint from target DC. To make it more confusing, these two DCs are replicating to all their other partners - they just don’t want to replication with each other (one direction)
2.       This KB helps: http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2089874 and with good explanation too
3.       In our case, it sounds like root DC(source) was brought to a wrong child DC (target) for replication as per above KB.
4.       However when I check all related A/CNAME records, they are all CORRECT. All WINS records are correct too. Clean DNS cache on both client side and DNS server side didn’t help either
5.       It turns out it’s child’s delegated zone in root zone has incorrect glue record (right click child zone, properties, name servers tab). Windows apparently is capable of detecting such misconfiguration but chose not to auto correct, which is weird. 

Lesson learned: when a DC's CNAME or A is resolved to a wrong IP while all its references in visible zones are correct, please check the Name Servers tab of stud node (of child zone) in parent DNS server. Also, when promote/demote child DCs, or change their IPs, please make sure changes are made in the Name Servers tab too ( I mistakenly assume that dcpromo program would do that automatically)